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Normal Stages of Human Development (Birth to 5 Years)


Physical and Language



Birth to 1 month

Feedings: 5-8 per day

Sleep: 20 hrs per day

Sensory Capacities: makes basic distinctions in vision,
hearing, smelling, tasting, touch,
temperature, and perception of pain

Generalized Tension

Helpless Asocial Fed by mother

2 -3 months

Sensory Capacities: color perception,
visual exploration, and oral exploration.
Sounds: cries, coos, grunts
Motor Ability: control of eye muscles,
lifts head when on stomach. Delight


Smiles at a Face Visually fixates at a face,
smiles at a face, may be soothed by rocking.

4 - 6 months

Sensory Capacities: localizes sounds
Sounds: babbling, makes most vowels and
about half of the consonants

Feedings: 3-5 per day

Motor Ability:
control of head and arm movements,
purposive grasping, rolls over.

Enjoys being cuddled

Recognizes his mother.
Distinguishes between familiar persons and strangers,
no longer smiles indiscriminately.
Expects feeding, dressing, and bathing.

7 - 9 months

Motor Ability: control of trunk and hands,
sits without support, crawls about.

Specific emotional attachment to mother.

Protests separation from mother.
Enjoys "peek-a-boo"

10 months to 12 months

Motor Ability: control of legs and feet,
stands, creeps, apposition of thumb and fore-finger.

Language: says one or two words, imitates sounds,
and responds to simple commands.

Feedings: 3 meals, 2 snacks
Sleep: 12 hours, 2 naps Anger

Fear of strangers
Curiosity, exploration

Responsive to own name.
Wave bye-bye.
Plays pat-a-cake, understands "no-no!"
Gives and takes objects.

1 - 1 ½ yrs

Motor Ability: creeps up stairs, walks (10-20 min),
and makes lines on paper with crayon.
Dependent Behaviour

Very upset when separated from mother
Fear of Bath

Obeys limited commands.
Repeats a few words.
Interested in his mirror image.
Feeds himself.

1 ½ - 2 yrs

Motor Ability: runs, kicks a ball, and
builds 6 cube tower (2yrs) Capable of bowel and
bladder control.

Language: vocabulary of more than 200 words

Sleep:12 hours at night, 1-2 hr nap

Temper tantrums (1-3yrs)

Resentment of new baby Does opposite of
what he is told (18 months).

2 - 3 yrs

Motor Ability: jumps off a step, rides a tricycle,
uses crayons, builds a 9-10 cube tower.

Language: starts to use short sentences controls
and explores world with language,
stuttering may appear briefly.
Fear of separation

Negativistic (2 ½ yrs) Violent emotions, anger
Differentiates facial expressions
of anger, sorrow, and joy.
Sense of humor (Plays tricks)

Talks, uses "I" "me" "you"
Copies parents' actions.
Dependent, clinging, possessive about toys,
enjoys playing alongside another child.
Negativism (2 ½ yrs).
Resists parental demands.
Gives orders. Rigid insistence on sameness of routine.
Inability to make decisions.

3 - 4 yrs

Motor Ability: Stands on one leg, jumps up and
down, draws a circle and a cross (4 yrs)

Self-sufficient in many routines of home life.
Affectionate toward parents.
Imaginary fears of dark,
injury, etc. (3 to 5 years)

Likes to share, uses "we"
Cooperative play with other
children, nursery school.
Imitates parents.

4 - 5 yrs

Motor Ability: mature motor control, skips,
broad jumps, dresses himself,
copies a square and a triangle.

Language: talks clearly, uses adult speech sounds,
has mastered basic grammar,
relates a story, knows
over 2,000 words(5 yrs)

Responsibility and guilt
Feels pride in accomplishment

Prefers to play with other children,
becomes competitive prefers
gender-appropriate activities

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